This article will give a brief review of the start-of-the-art in commercial practice and advanced research in the field of Rapid Prototyping with special attention to the additive methods of Solid Free Form Fabrication. Recent applications of this technology in computer integrated manufacturing environments will be outlined. Future applications and research in new materials will also be addressed.

1.
Agarwala, et al., 1995c, “Structural Ceramics by Fused Deposition of Ceramics,” Proceedings of Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium 1995, Aug. 7–9, ed. by H. L. Marcus et al, University of Texas at Austin, pp. 1–8.
2.
Agarwala
M.
,
Bourell
D.
,
Beaman
J.
,
Marcus
H.
, and
Barlow
J.
,
1995
a, “
Direct Laser Sintering of Metals
,”
Rapid Prototyping Journal
1
,
1
, pp.
26
36
.
3.
Agarwala
M.
,
Bourell
D.
,
Beaman
J.
,
Marcus
H. L.
, and
Barlow
J.
,
1995
b, “
Postprocessing of SLS Metal Parts
,”
Rapid Prototyping Journal
,
1
,
2
, pp.
36
44
.
4.
Atwood, C. et al., 1994, “Advances in Rapid Prototyping” in Proceedings of the Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing ’94 Conference,” Apr. 24–26, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Michigan.
5.
Birmingham, B. R., Tompkins, J. V., Harrison, S. L., and Marcus, H. L., 1995, “SFF Laser Beam Processing Using Gas Phase Approaches,” Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Beam processing of Advanced Materials, 1995 ASM Meeting, Cleveland, OH, pp. 105–117.
6.
Bonnell, D., Bourell, D., and Marcus, H., 1996, “Solid Freeform Fabrication of Powders Using Laser Processing,” Proceeding of the P/M Symposium on Laser Manufacturing, 1996 World Congress on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, Washington D.C., June 1996, J. W. Sears, ed., To Be Published.
7.
Burns, M., 1993, Automated Fabrication, PTR Prentice Hall, Englewood cliffs, New Jersey, pp. 3–7.
8.
Burns, M., 1993, Automated Fabrication, PTR Prentice Hall, Englewood cliffs, New Jersey, pp. 192–216.
9.
Cawley, J. D., Wei, P., Liu, Z. E., Newman, W. S., Mathewson, B. B., and Heuer, A. H., 1995, “Alumina Ceramics made by CAM-LEM Technology,” Proceedings of Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium 1995, Aug. 7–9, ed. by H. L. Marcus et al, University of Texas at Austin, pp. 9–16.
10.
Cima, M. J., and Sachs, E. M., 1991, “Three-Dimensional Printing: Form, Materials and Performance,” Proceedings of Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium 1991, Aug. 12–14, ed. by H. L. Marcus et al, University of Texas at Austin, pp. 187–194.
11.
Clark, K. B., and Wheelwright, S. C., 1992, Revolutionizing Product Development, The Free Press, New York, pp. 32–33.
12.
Comb, J. W., and Priedeman, W. R., 1993, “Control Parameters and Materials Selection Criteria for Rapid Prototyping Systems,” Proceedings of Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium 1993, August 9–11, edited by H. L. Marcus et al, University of Texas at Austin, pp. 86–93.
13.
Crews, A. R., Bossi, R. H., Georgeson, G. E., 1993, “X-Ray Computed Tomography for Geometry Acquisition,” Report #WL-TR-93-4036, Materials Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.
14.
Deng, X. et al., 1992, “Parametric Study of Selective Laser Sintering of a Sample Polymer System” in Proceedings of Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium 1992, Aug. 3–5, ed. by H. L. Marcus et al, University of Texas at Austin, pp. 102–109.
15.
Dickens, P. M., Prigham, R. C., Cobb, R. C., Gibson, I., and Dixon G., 1992, “Rapid Prototyping Using 3D Welding,” Proceedings of Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium 1992, Aug. 3–5, ed. by H. L. Marcus et al., University of Texas at Austin, pp. 280–290.
16.
Donahue, R. J., and Turner, R. S., 1991, “CAD Modeling and Alternative Methods of Information Transfer for Rapid Prototyping Systems,” in Proceedings of Second International Conference on Rapid Prototyping, 1991, University of Dayton, pp. 217–235.
17.
Feygin, M., 1994, “Apparatus and Method for Forming an Integral Object from Laminations,” U. S. Patent #5,354,414. Oct. 11, 1994.
18.
Jacobs, P. F., 1992, “Fundamentals of Stereolithography” in Proceedings of Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium 1992, August 3–5, ed. H. L. Marcus et al., University of Texas at Austin, pp. 196–211.
19.
Jacobs, P. F., 1995, “QuickCast 1.1 and Rapid Tooling,” in Proceedings of Sixth International Conference on Rapid Prototyping, 1995, University of Dayton, pp. 237–257.
20.
Jacobs, P. F., 1996, “Stereolithography and Other RP&M Technologies,” ASME Press, New York, p. 5.
21.
Jacobs, P. F., 1996, “Stereolithography and Other RP&M Technologies,” ASME Press, New York, pp. 89–118.
22.
Jacobs, P. F., 1996, “Stereolithography and Other RP&M Technologies,” ASME Press, New York, pp. 49–51.
23.
Keicher, D. M., Romero, L. A., Atwood, C. L., and Griffith, M., 1996, “Laser Metal deposition of Alloy 625 for Freeform fabrication,” Proceeding of the P/M Symposium on Laser Manufacturing, 1996 World Congress on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, Washington D.C., June 1996, J. W. Sears, ed., To Be Published.
24.
Lakshminarayan
, and
Marcus
H. L.
,
1994
, “
Ceramic Composites Fabricated by Selective Laser Sintering
,”
Materials and Manufacturing Processes
, V
9
, 1994, pp.
921
935
.
25.
Lakshminarayan, U., and McAlea, K., 1996, “Advances in Manufacturing Metal Objects by Selective Laser Sintering (SLS),” Proceeding of the P/M Symposium on Laser Manufacturing, 1996 World Congress on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, Washington D.C., June 1996 To Be Published.
26.
Lewis, G. K., Thoma, D. J., Milewski, J. O., and Nemec, R. B., 1996, “Directed Light Fabrication of Net Near-Net Shape Metal Components,” Proceedings of the P/M Symposium on Laser Manufacturing, 1996 World Congress on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, Washington D.C., June 1996, J. W. Sears, ed., To Be Published.
27.
Maxwell, J., and Pegna, J., 1995, “Gas-Phase Laser Induced Pyrolysis of Tapered Microstructures,” Proceedings of Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium 1995, Aug. 7–9, ed. by H. L. Marcus et al., University of Texas at Austin, pp. 143–150.
28.
Mazumder, J., Choi, J., Nagaratham, K. J., Koch, and Hetzner, D., 1996, “The Direct Metal Deposition of H13 Tool Steel for 3-D Components,” Journal of Metals, May 1997, pp. 55–60.
29.
Mazumder, J., Koch, J., Nagaratham, K., and Choi, J., 1996, “Rapid manufacturing by Laser Aided Direct Deposition of Metals,” Proceeding of the P/M Symposium on Laser Manufacturing, 1996 World Congress on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, Washington D.C., June 1996, J. W. Sears, ed., To Be Published.
30.
Mertz, R., Prinz, F. B., Ramaswami, K., Terk, M., and Weiss, I. E., 1994, “Shape Deposition Manufacturing,” Proceedings of Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium 1994, Aug. 7–9, ed. by H. L. Marcus et al, University of Texas at Austin, pp. 1–8.
31.
Nelson, C. et al., 1995, “Improvements in SLS Part Accuracy,” in Proceedings of Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium 1995, Aug. 7–9, edited by H. L. Marcus et al, University of Texas at Austin, pp. 159–169.
32.
Newman, W. S., Mathewson, B. B., Cawley, J. D., and Heuer, A. H., 1995, “Automated Fabrication of Ceramic Components from Tape-Cast Ceramic,” Proceedings of Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium 1995, Aug. 7–9, ed. by H. L. Marcus et al, University of Texas at Austin, pp. 253–260.
33.
Prinz, F. B., Weiss, I. E., Amon, C. H., and Beuth, J. L., 1995, “Processing, Thermal and Mechanical Issues in Shape Deposition Manufacturing,” Proceedings of Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium 1995, Aug. 7–9, ed. by H. L. Marcus et al, University of Texas at Austin, pp. 118–129.
34.
Raynor, M. J., 1995, CARP Program Manger, Ricardo Consulting Engineers, Ltd., Shoreham, ENGLAND Private Communication.
35.
Sachs, E., Cima, M., Bredt, J., Curdereau, A., 1992, “CAD-Casting: The Direct Fabrication of Ceramic Shells and Cores by Three Dimensional Printing,” Man. Rev. 5[2] pp. 117–126.
36.
Schwartz, A., 1993, “Cubitalis High Throughput Rapid Prototyping Systems: A Solider Approach to Modeling,” Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Rapid Prototyping, University of Nottingham, ENGLAND, pp. 239–45.
37.
Subramanian
P. K.
,
Vail
N.
,
Barlow
J. W.
, and
Marcus
H. L.
,
1995
, “
Selective Laser Sintering of Al2O3 with Polymer Binders
,”
Rapid Prototyping Journal
,
1
,
2
, pp.
24
35
.
38.
Vivek, D., Matz, J., and Eager, T., 1994, “Electron Beam Solid Freeform Fabrication of Metal Parts,” Proceedings of Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium 1994, Aug. 7–9, ed. by H. L. Marcus et al, University of Texas at Austin, pp. 64–71.
39.
Whitney, E. J., Arcello, F. G., and Krantz, D., 1996, “P/M Laser Manufacturing of Titanium Structures,” Proceeding of the P/M Symposium on Laser Manufacturing, 1996 World Congress on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, Washington D.C., June 1996, J. W. Sears, ed., To Be Published.
40.
Wieters, K. P., Kieback, B. F., Loschau, W., 1996, “Laser Sintering of Composite Metal Powders,” Proceeding of the P/M Symposium on Laser Manufacturing, 1996 World Congress on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, Washington D.C., June 1996, J. W. Sears, editor, To Be Published.
41.
Wozny, M. J., 1992, “‘Systems Issues in Solid Free Form Fabrication,” Proceedings of Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium 1992, Aug. 3–5, H. L. Marcus et al., eds., University of Texas at Austin, pp. 1–11.
42.
Zong, G., Jacquot, Y., Thissell, W. R., and Marcus, H. L., 1991, “Solid Freeform Fabrication Using Selective Area Laser Deposition,” Plasma and Laser Processing of Materials, K. Upadhya, ed., TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1991, pp. 23–48.
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