The reduction of setup time has a significant impact on shortening manufacturing cycle time. In this paper, characteristics of setup activities are investigated, and models for sequencing setup activities are discussed. Sequencing setup activities can be modeled as a project scheduling problem. Two basic linear programming models for scheduling setup activities are presented. The models minimize the setup time (in particular, the internal setup time), and make a trade-off between the time and cost of setup activities with limited machining resources and budget. Factorial analysis is used to provide insights into the minimization of internal setup time.

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