Preform design is one of the critical fields in metal forming. The finite element method (FEM) has been effective in designing preforms and process sequence, for which the backward tracing scheme of the rigid-plastic FEM has been explored. In this work a program using the backward tracing scheme of the rigid-plastic FEM is developed for three-dimensional plastic deformation, which is an extension of the scheme from two-dimensional cases. The calculation of friction between workpiece and die, and handling of boundary conditions during backward tracing require sophisticated treatment. The developed program is applied to upsetting of a rectangular block and to side pressing of a cylindrical workpiece. The results of the two applications show feasibility of the program on three-dimensional plastic deformation.

1.
Altan, T., Boulger, F. W., Becker, J. R., Akgerman, N., and Henning, H. J., 1973, Forging Equipment, Materials, and Practices, MCIC-HB-03, Battelle-Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, Oh.
2.
Hwang
S. M.
, and
Kobayashi
S.
,
1984
, “
Preform Design in Plane-Strain Rolling by the Finite Element Method
,”
Int. J. Mach. Tool Des. Res.
, Vol.
24
, No.
4
, pp.
253
266
.
3.
Hwang
S. M.
, and
Kobayashi
S.
,
1986
, “
Preform Design in Disk Forging
,”
Int. J. Mach. Tool Des. Res.
, Vol.
26
, No.
3
, pp.
231
243
.
4.
Hwang
S. M.
, and
Kobayashi
S.
,
1986
, “
Preform Design in Shell Nosing at Elevated Temperatures
,”
Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact.
, Vol.
27
, No.
1
, pp.
1
14
.
5.
Kang
B. S.
,
1991
, “
Process Sequence Design in a Heading Process
,”
J. of Materials Processing Technology
, Vol.
27
, pp.
213
226
.
6.
Kang
B. S.
,
Kim
B. M.
, and
Choi
C. C.
,
1994
, “
Preform Design in Extrusion by the FEM and Its Experimental Confirmation
,”
J. of Materials Processing Technology
, Vol.
41
, pp.
237
248
.
7.
Kang
B. S.
,
Kim
N. S.
, and
Kobayashi
S.
,
1990
, “
Computer-Aided Preform Design in Forging of an Airfoil Section Blade
,”
Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact.
, Vol.
30
, No.
1
, pp.
43
52
.
8.
Kang
B. S.
, and
Kobayashi
S.
,
1994
, “
Process Sequence Design in Cold Forging to Form a Constant Velocity Joint Housing
,”
Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact.
, Vol.
34
, No.
8
, pp.
1133
1146
.
9.
Kim
N.
, and
Kobayashi
S.
,
1990
, “
Preform Design in H-Shaped Cross Sectional Axisymmetric Forging by the Finite Element Method
,”
Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact.
, Vol.
30
, No.
2
, pp.
243
268
.
10.
Kobayashi, S., 1993, “Plasticity and Design in Metal Forming,” Advances in Engineering Plasticity and Its Applications, W. B. Lee, ed., pp. 41–48.
11.
Kobayashi, S., Oh, S. I., and Altan, T., 1989, Metal Forming and the Finite-Element Method, Oxford University Press.
12.
Park
J. J.
, and
Kobayashi
S.
,
1984
, “
Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Block Compression
,”
Int. J. Mech. Sci.
, Vol.
26
, pp.
165
176
.
13.
Park
J. J.
,
Rebelo
N.
, and
Kobayashi
S.
,
1983
, “
A New Approach to Preform Design in Metal Forming with the Finite Element Method
,”
Int. J. Mach. Tool Des. Res.
, Vol.
23
, No.
1
, pp.
71
79
.
14.
Pillinger
I.
,
Hartley
P.
,
Sturgess
C. E. N.
, and
Rowe
G. W.
,
1985
, “
An Elastic-Plastic Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Cold Forging of Rectangular Blocks and Experimental Comparison
,”
Int. J. Mach. Tool Des. Res.
, Vol.
25
, No.
3
, pp.
229
243
.
15.
Van Tyne, C. J., and Avitzur, B., 1983, Production to Near Net Shape, ASM, Metals Park, Oh.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.