An enhanced model for the prediction of static cutting forces in face milling is presented. The key features of the model include the ability to handle complex work-piece geometry, two-dimensional cutter feed paths, multiple pass machining, and effects of machine set-up errors. A two-dimensional boundary representation scheme is used to describe the workpiece geometry which may contain holes, slots, and other complex geometrical features. Variable cutter feed paths are represented by a combination of linear and circular arcs. In view of this and the complex workpiece geometry, a new algorithm for cutter-workpiece engagement determination is developed. Several sources of machine set-up error such as spindle and cutter axis tilt, and cutter center offset runout are modeled and their individual as well as combined effects on key machining process variables such as the axial and the radial depth of cut illustrated. Results of model verification experiments are reported for different workpiece geometry and cutter feed paths. A comparison of the predicted and measured forces shows good agreement.

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