Relatively simple design equations are derived for selecting container external diameter in completely closed die forging, using die expansion as a basis. The method imposes a theoretical lower limit on the tolerance than can be specified on the maximum diameter of a forging. The method can be used for axisymmetric shapes such as solid and hollow cylinders, +-, U-, H-, and T-shapes.

1.
Ibhadode
A. O. A.
, and
Dean
T. A.
, “
The Influence of Process Variables on Load and Accuracy When Forging in a Completely Closed Cavity Die
,”
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers
, Vol.
202
, No.
B4
,
1988
, pp.
237
245
.
2.
Thomas, A., Die Design, DFRA Forging Handbook, Sheffield, 1980.
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