Experiments are performed for end milling aluminum at 15,000 RPM spindle speed (1,508 m/min cutting speed) and up to 3 m/min table feedrate using an experimental machine tool control system. A digital feedforward controller for feed drive control incorporates the Zero Phase Error Tracking Controller (ZPETC) and feedforward friction compensation. The controller achieves near-perfect (±3 μm) tracking over a 26 mm trajectory with a maximum speed of 2 m/min. The maximum contouring error for a 26 mm diameter circle at this speed is less than 4 μm. Tracking and contouring experiments are conducted for table feedrates as high as 10 m/min. Frequency domain analysis demonstrates that the feedforward controller achieves a bandwidth of 10 Hz without phase distortion. In a direct comparison of accuracy, the machining errors in specimens produced by the experimental controller were up to 20 times smaller than the errors in specimens machined by an industrial CNC.

1.
Anjanappa, M., Kirk, J. A., and Anand, D. K., 1987, “Tool Path Error Control in Thin Rib Machining,” Transactions of the XV North American Manufacturing Research Conference, pp. 485–492.
2.
Armarego
E. J. A.
, and
Deshpande
N. P.
,
1989
, “
Computerized Predictive Cutting Models for Forces in End-Milling Including Eccentricity Effects
,”
Annals of the CIRP
, Vol.
38
, No.
1
, pp.
45
49
.
3.
Donmez, M. A., Lee, K., Liu, C. R., and Barash, M. M., 1986, “A Real-Time Error Compensation System for a Computerized Numerical Turning Center,” Proceedings of the 1986 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 1, pp. 172–176, San Francisco, CA.
4.
Ferreira, J. C. E., and Hinduja, S., 1993, “A Radial Depth-Based Tool Path Generation Method for Pocket-Machining,” Transactions of the XXI North American Manufacturing Research Conference, pp. 263–270, Stillwater, OK.
5.
Ferreira
P. M.
, and
Liu
C. R.
,
1986
, “
A Contribution to the Analysis and Compensation of the Geometric Error of a Machining Center
,”
Annals of the CIRP
, Vol.
35
, pp.
259
262
.
6.
Gross, E., Tomizuka, M., and Messner, W., 1993, “Cancellation of Discrete Time Unstable Zeros by Feedforward Control,” ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, in Press.
7.
Haack
B.
, and
Tomizuka
M.
,
1991
, “
The Effect of Adding Zeroes to Feedforward Controllers
,”
ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control
, Vol.
113
, No.
1
, pp.
6
10
.
8.
Ho-Cheng
H.
, and
Dharan
C. K. H.
,
1990
, “
Delamination During Drilling in Composite Laminates
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR INDUSTRY
, Vol.
112
, No.
3
, pp.
236
239
.
9.
King, R. I., ed., 1985, Handbook of High-Speed Machining Technology, Chapman Hall, New York and London.
10.
Komanduri, R., Subramanian, K., and Von Turkovich, B. F., eds., 1984, “High Speed Machining,” Proceedings of a Symposium at the Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, PED-Vol. 12, New Orleans, LA.
11.
Koren
Y.
,
1980
, “
Cross-Coupled Biaxial Computer Controls for Manufacturing Systems
,”
ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control
, Vol.
102
, No.
1
, pp.
265
272
.
12.
Koren
Y.
, and
Lo
C. C.
,
1992
, “
Advanced Controllers for Feed Drives
,”
Annals of the CIRP
, Vol.
41
, No.
2
, pp.
689
698
.
13.
Kulkarni, P. K., and Srinivasan, K., 1984, “Identification of Discrete Time Dynamic Models for Machine Tool Feed Drives,” Proceedings of the Symposium on Sensors and Controls for Automated Manufacturing and Robotics, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, pp. 1–12.
14.
Kulkarni
P. K.
, and
Srinivasan
K.
,
1989
, “
Optimal Contouring Control of Multi-Axial Feed Drive Servomechanisms
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR INDUSTRY
, Vol.
111
, No.
2
, pp.
140
149
.
15.
Lee, H.-S., and Tomizuka, M., 1994, “Design of Friction-Compensated and Robust Digital Tracking Controllers for High-Accuracy Positioning Systems,” Proceedings of the 1994 Japan-USA Symposium on Flexible Automation, Kobe, July 1994.
16.
Schulz
H.
, and
Moriwaki
T.
,
1992
, “
High-Speed Machining
,”
Annals of the CIRP
, Vol.
41
, No.
2
, pp.
637
643
.
17.
Sutherland
J. W.
, and
DeVor
R. E.
,
1986
, “
An Improved Method for Cutting Force and Surface Error Prediction in Flexible End Milling Systems
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR INDUSTRY
, Vol.
108
, Nov., pp.
269
279
.
18.
Suzuki, A., and Tomizuka, M., 1991, “Design and Implementation of Digital Servo Controller for High Speed Machine Tools,” Proceedings of the 1991 American Control Conference, Vol. 2, pp. 1246–1251, Boston, MA.
19.
System Identification Toolbox User’s Guide, 1991, The MathWorks, Inc.
20.
Tlusty
J.
, and
MacNeil
P.
,
1975
, “
Dynamics of Cutting Forces in End Milling
,”
Annals of the CIRP
, Vol.
21
, No.
1
, pp.
21
25
.
21.
Tlusty
J.
,
Smith
S.
, and
Zamudio
C.
,
1990
, “
New NC Routines for Quality in Milling
,”
Annals of the CIRP
, Vol.
39
, No.
1
, pp.
517
521
.
22.
Tomizuka
M.
,
1987
, “
Zero Phase Error Tracking Algorithm for Digital Control
,”
ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control
, Vol.
109
, No.
1
, pp.
65
68
.
23.
Tsao
T. C.
, and
Tomizuka
M.
,
1987
, “
Adaptive Zero Phase Error Tracking Algorithm for Digital Control
,”
ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control
, Vol.
109
, No.
4
, pp.
349
354
.
24.
Tung
E. D.
,
Anwar
G.
, and
Tomizuka
M.
,
1993
a, “
Low Velocity Friction Compensation and Feedforward Solution Based on Repetitive Control
,”
ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control
, Vol.
115
, No.
2A
, pp.
279
284
.
25.
Tung
E. D.
, and
Tomizuka
M.
,
1993
b, “
Feedforward Controller Design Based on the Identification of Low Frequency Dynamics
,”
ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control
, Vol.
115
, No.
3
, pp.
348
356
.
26.
Umeno
T.
and
Hori
Y.
,
1991
, “
Robust Speed Control of DC Servomotors using Modern Two Degrees-of-Freedom Controller Design
,”
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
, Vol.
38
, No.
5
, pp.
363
368
.
27.
Wahlberg
B.
, and
Ljung
L.
,
1986
, “
Design Variables For Bias Distribution in Transfer Function Estimation
,”
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
, Vol.
AC-31
, pp.
134
144
.
28.
Weck
M.
, and
Ye
G.
,
1990
, “
Sharp Corner Tracking Using the IKF Control Strategy
,”
Annals of the CIRP
, Vol.
39
, No.
1
, pp.
437
441
.
29.
Xia, Z., and Menq, C-H., 1990, “Precision Tracking Control of Nonminimum-Phase Systems and its Application to Noncircular Cutting,” in Automation of Manufacturing Processes, K. Danai and S. Malkin, eds., DSC-Vol. 22, pp. 95–99.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.