Design of a product (process) includes system design, parameter design, and tolerance design. Robust design is closely applicable to parameter design and tolerance design. The current literature on robust design has focused on parameter design while the problem of tolerance design has not been adequately covered. The tolerance design literature emphasizes the use of optimization to minimize cost while little attention has been paid to minimizing the sensitivity of tolerances to the variation of manufacturing processes. This paper discusses the application of the design of experiments (DOE) approach to tolerance synthesis to minimize manufacturing variations in a probabilistic case. The DOE approach is illustrated with an example.

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