Weld pool geometry is a crucial factor in determining welding quality, especially in the case of sheet welding. Its feedback control should be a fundamental requirement for automated welding. However, the real-time precise measurement of pool geometry is a difficult procedure. It has been shown that vision sensing is a promising approach for monitoring the weld pool geometry. Quality images that can be processed in real-time to detect the pool geometry are acquired by using a high shutter speed camera assisted with nitrogen laser as an illumination source. However, during practical welding, impurities or oxides existing on the pool surface complicate image processing. The image features are analyzed and utilized for effectively processing the image. It is shown that the proposed algorithm can always detect the pool boundary with sufficient accuracy in less than 100 ms. Based on this measuring technique, a robust adaptive system has been developed to control the pool area. Experiments show that the proposed control system can overcome the influence caused by various disturbances.

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