A modeling methodology applicable to milling is proposed. This methodology represents a unified approach, in which the essential features of previously developed analytic and numerical models are integrated. It employs homogeneous transformation technique and matrix formulation of the tool geometry. A systematic approach underlying the methodology facilitates separation of various features and phenomena characteristic of milling in the process of model building. It also assures the coherence and compatibility of various derived models. Thus, these models can be developed incrementally, by increasing their sophistication until the desired level of agreement with the actual process is achieved. As an example, equations of cutting point trajectories in face milling are derived. These equations are used to estimate the actual tool geometry and texture of the generated surface on the basis of measured cutting forces.

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