An enhanced surface texture model for predicting the two- and three-dimensional structure of the surface generated by the end cutting edges on the bottom of an end mill is presented. This model includes the effects of the radial rake and the primary end tooth relief angles which have been neglected in the models available to date. Non-ideal effects such as cutter runout and back-cutting are explicitly modeled. An algorithm to simulate the two- and three-dimensional milled surface is presented. It is shown that the main effect of the radial rake and the primary end tooth relief angles is to increase the surface roughness parameter values. The effectiveness of the enhanced model in accurately capturing the major features of the machined surface texture and in closely predicting the roughness parameter values is demonstrated through experiments and model simulations. It is shown that the enhanced model predicts both the shape of the surface profile and the surface roughness parameters more accurately than the existing models in the literature.

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