Instrumentation and procedures have been developed for the visualization of high-speed, submerged water jets of the type used in cleaning, cutting, and drilling applications. As examples of these techniques, cavitation characteristics of jets produced by two plain conical nozzles as well as by a similar nozzle equipped with a transverse pin are presented. The results can be used to identify the regions of cavity inception, transport, and collapse. A semi-empirical expression relating the extent of the cavitation region to the cavitation index and the nozzle diameter is also presented.

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