A simple kinematically admissible velocity field for three-dimensional deformation in upset forging of regular polygonal blocks is proposed which takes into account the sidewise spread as well as the bulging along thickness. From the proposed velocity field the upper-bound load and the deformed configuration are determined by minimizing the total power consumption with respect to three chosen parameters. Experiments are carried out with annealed commercially pure copper at room temperature for different thicknesses, billet shapes and lubrication conditions. The theoretical predictions both in the forging load and the deformed configuration are in good agreement with the experimental results. It is thus shown that the velocity field proposed in this work can be conveniently used for the prediction of the forging load and deformation in the upset forging of regular polygonal blocks.

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