A finite difference solution for the transient heat transfer during axisymmetric upset forging has been developed. The interfacial film between the die and the billet has been included in the analysis, and all modes of heat transfer have been taken into account. The results of a parallel experimental study have also been presented. The effects of geometrical and physical characteristics of the billet and the die on the heat transfer process, particularly on die heating, have been systematically investigated.

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