Although the chip formation mechanism by a tool having a large negative rake angle is not well known, it is very important to make the process clear in order to get high quality in finished surfaces. In this paper, the behavior of material ahead of a tool face with a large negative rake angle is examined by means of low speed machining on lead. The deformation process of the material is investigated by the deformation study combining a finite element method with a grid line method. During cutting, the deformation process of grid lines which were drawn on the sides of testpieces was observed through a side glass which restricted the side flow of material. Cutting force was measured by a dynamometer consisting of an elongated octagonal ring with strain wire gages. As a result it was found that the shear stress on the slip line of maximum increment of shear strain is nearly constant, but the compressive stress changes along the line. It was concave near the top of cutting edge and convex near the surface of the test piece. The position of the change of polarity in the slope shifted depending on the rake angle of the tool. This phenomenon is considered to have close relation with the stagnant tip, which decides not only the size of chip, but also whether or not a chip will be formed. Flow lines of material and the deformed region ahead of tool faces with different negative rake angles were also obtained and they were compared with each other.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.