The metal-forming processes of shell nosing at elevated temperatures were analyzed by the finite-element method. The strain-rate effects on materials properties and the flow stress dependence on temperatures were included in the finite-element analysis. A thermodynamic theory of visco-plasticity based on rational mechanics was adapted to a rigid-plastic material idealization. An implicit scheme is used for the time integration of heat transfer equations, which is coupled to the plasticity equations. The nine-node quadrilateral elements with quadratic velocity distribution were used for the workpiece, and four-node quadrilateral elements were used for the die in the heat transfer analysis and temperature calculations. The coupled analysis of heat transfer and deformation was applied to the forming of AISI 1045 steel shells. Correlation between simulation and experimental results are good.

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