In plain milling operations with a single-toothed helical cutter, three components of cutting force are measured simultaneously and continuously corresponding to the varying cross-sectional area of cut by means of a unique optical method. Based on the measured cutting force variation in a constant width of cut, some required cutting force variations in various widths of cut can be obtained by summing up the overlapped basic cutting force variation patterns. Relationships between cutting force variations and cutting factors in plain milling operations are explained on the basis of the experimental results and the expanded results of experiments.

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