The friction reducing actions of the inclusion grains in metal cutting were discussed experimentally and theoretically. At first, a model of the friction reducing action of a single inclusion grain was proposed and an equation expressing the coefficient of friction in the contact with metal containing many inclusion grains was introduced. On the basis of the simple experiments, a model of the friction reducing action was ascertained. Subsequent cutting tests with leaded and resulfurized steels confirmed the equation introduced theoretically. The mechanisms of the friction in cutting were discussed in relation to the equation and the properties of the friction in cutting.

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