The grinding wheel topography is characterized and analyzed as a stochastic isotropic surface. An explicit procedure is given to check the assumption of surface isotropy. Geometric statistical properties such as the number of active cutting points per unit area, the ratio of real to apparent area of contact, and the mean and root-mean-square rake angle of ten grinding wheels are calculated. Using the characteristic parameters as responses, the relative contribution of the wheel grit size, hardness, and structure to the total wheel topography is quantified by factorial design analysis. The procedure of characterization is also applicable to other homogeneous stochastic isotropic surface.

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