The paper proposes a new model of chip forming process in three dimensional cutting with single point tool, in which the process is interpreted as a piling up of orthogonal cuttings along the cutting edge. Based upon the proposed model, an energy method similar to the upper bound approach, which enables to predict the chip formation and the three components of cutting force by using only the orthogonal cutting data, is developed. The method is also applied to predict chip formation and cutting force in oblique cutting, plain milling, and groove cutting operations.

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