Abstract

Electrified vehicle (EV) batteries that have reached the automotive end of life are providing a low-cost energy storage solution for grid-connected systems, such as DC fast charge stations (DCFCs). There are several challenges associated with the integration of second life batteries (SLBs) in power systems, such as the definition of a systematic approach for the concurrent optimization of performance and lifetime with the aim of minimizing the investment and operating costs. This paper proposes the application of automotive SLBs to DCFC stations where high-power grid connection is not available or feasible. The SLBs are charged using a low-power grid connection and then provide DCFC power to the EVs. An optimal control problem has been formulated to identify the energy management control (EMC) strategy that allows minimizing the replacement rate of the SLBs, while ensuring the EV load request is match.

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