Functional optical elements based on nano/micro-periodic structures have attracted much attention. Since the fabrication of these dual-periodic structures requires precise control of periodicity, the semiconductor process such as an electron beam lithography has been mainly employed. However, these techniques have problems with expensive and low throughput for industrial applications. Therefore, there remains a need for low cost and high throughput fabrication methods of dual-periodic structures. Then we developed a multi-exposure interference lithography (MEIL) system using rotational Lloyd’s mirror interferometer to overcome these problems. The advantages of interference lithography are a large processing area and low cost. Our developed rotational Lloyd’s mirror setup enables us to a highly precise superposition of multiple interference fringes by multi-exposure. Furthermore, we developed a measurement setup for reflective diffractive elements using a two axial rotating stage and measured the diffraction properties of the fabricated dual-periodic diffraction gratings. In this paper, as a demonstration, we succeeded in the fabrication of high-dispersion diffraction grating with an enhanced diffraction efficiency of the −3rd order light. The fabricated shapes have a periodicity of 1997 nm and 665 nm. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the intensity of the −3rd order light was enhanced by about 10 times compared to the single periodic grating.