Abstract

ASTM D6602 “Standard Practice for Sampling and Testing of Possible Carbon Black Fugitive Emissions or Other Environmental Particulate, or Both” was developed for the investigation of outdoor sooty surface problems and distinguishing manufactured carbon black, in the N100 to N900 series, from other environmental particulates. It is a microscopy technique that is well suited for the study of darkening agent complaints. Samples are collected from surfaces with cotton balls, wipes, and tape-lifts. The particulate is then analyzed by light microscopy and electron microscopy. The practice is used as a means to differentiate between darkening caused by fungal growth (biofilms), soots, or other dark particles. Polarized light microscopy provides information about the relative amounts of the different types of particles present and some information about the type of biofilm, if present. Transmission electron microscopy provides confirmation of aciniform soot, if present, and some information about the possible source of the soot. An investigation of dark surface particulate in a city where both a carbon black manufacturing facility and an oil refinery were possible industrial sources provides an illustration of the use of the method.

References

1.
U.S.C. 7401-7626
,
1990
,
National Ambient Air Quality Standards, Clean Air Act
, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
2.
EPA 452/P-10-003
,
2010
,
Policy Assessment for the Review of the Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standards, First External Review Draft
, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, NC.
3.
ASTM D3274-09e1
,
2009
, “
Evaluating Degree of Surface Disfigurement of Paint Films by Microbial (Fungal or Algal) Growth or Soil and Dirt Accumulation
,”
Annual Book of ASTM Standards
, Vol.
06.01
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
.
4.
ASTM STP D4610
,
2004
, “
Determining the Presence of and Removing Microbial (Fungal or Algal) Growth on Paint and Related Coatings
,”
Annual Book of ASTM Standards
, Vol.
06.01
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
.
5.
ASTM STP D6602-03b(2010)e1
,
2010
, “
Sampling and Testing of Possible Carbon Black Fugitive Emissions or Other Environmental Particulate, or Both
,”
Annual Book of ASTM Standards
, Vol.
09.01
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
.
6.
Millette
,
J. R.
,
Turner
,
W.
,
Hill
,
W. B.
,
Few
,
P.
, and
Kyle
,
J. P.
, “
Microscopic Investigation of Outdoor ‘Sooty’ Surface Problems
,”
Environ. Forensics
, Vol.
8
,
2007
, pp.
37
51
. https://doi.org/10.1080/15275920601180552
7.
Turner
,
W. L.
,
Millette
,
J. R.
,
Boltin
,
W. R.
, and
Hopen
,
T. J.
, “
A Standard Approach to the Characterization of Common Indoor Dust Constituents
,”
Microscope
, Vol.
53
(
4
),
2005
, pp.
169
177
.
8.
Millette
,
J. R.
,
Brown
,
R. S.
, and
Hill
,
W. B.
, “
Using Environmental Forensic Microscopy in Exposure Science
,”
J. Exp. Sci. Environ. Epidemiology
, Vol.
18
,
2008
, pp.
20
30
. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jes.7500613
9.
McCrone
,
W. C.
,
Delly
,
J. G.
, and
Palenick
,
S. J.
,
The Particle Atlas
, 2nd ed., Vol.
2
,
Arbor Science
,
Ann Arbor
,
1979
.
10.
Palenik
,
S. J.
, “
The Determination of Geographical Origin of Dust Samples
,”
The Particle Atlas
, 2nd ed., Vol.
5
,
W. C.
McCrone
,
J.G.
Delly
,
S. J.
Palenick
, Eds.
Ann Arbor Science
,
Ann Arbor
,
1979
, pp.
1347
1361
.
11.
Cassens
,
D. L.
and
Feist
,
W. C.
, “
Discoloration of House Paint—Causes and Cures
,” U.S. Department of Agriculture and Cooperative Extension Services of the North Central Region, NCR Extension Publication, Vol.
134
,
1988
.
12.
Gorbushina
,
A. A.
,
Krumbein
,
W. E.
,
Hamman
,
C. H.
,
Panina
,
L.
,
Soukharjevski
,
S.
, and
Wollenzien
,
U.
, “
Role of Black Fungi in Color Change and Biodeterioration of Antique Marbles
,”
Geomicrobiol. J.
, Vol.
11
,
1993
, pp.
205
220
. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490459309377952
13.
Graves
,
W. J.
, “
A Mineralogical Soil Classification Technique for the Forensic Scientist
,”
JFSCA
, Vol.
24
,
1979
, pp.
323
338
.
14.
Hawksworth
,
D. L.
,
Kirk
,
P. M.
,
Sutton
,
B. C.
, and
Pegler
,
D. N.
,
Ainsworth and Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi
,
CABI International
,
Oxon, United Kingdom
,
1995
, p. 616.
15.
Faegri
,
K.
,
Iversen
,
J.
, and
Waterbolk
,
H. T.
,
Textbook of Pollen Analysis
,
Hafner Publishing Company
,
New York
,
1964
, p. 237.
16.
Farr
,
D.
,
Bills
,
G.
,
Chamuris
,
G.
, and
Rossman
A.
,
Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States
,
American Phytopathological Society Press
,
St. Paul
,
1989
, p. 1152.
17.
Hopen
,
T. J.
, “
The Value of Soil Evidence
,”
Trace Evidence Analysis
,
M. M.
Houck
, Ed.,
Elsevier Academic
,
Boston
,
2004
, pp.
105
122
.
18.
Krumbein
,
W. C.
and
Pettijohn
,
F. J.
,
Manual of Sedimentary Petrography
,
Appelton-Century-Crofts
,
New York
,
1938
, pp.
439
441
.
19.
May
,
E.
,
Lewis
,
F. J.
,
Pereira
,
S.
,
Taler
,
S.
,
Seaward
,
M. R. D.
, and
Allsopp
,
D.
, “
Microbial Deterioration of Building Stone—A Review
,”
Biodeterioration Abstr.
, Vol.
7
,
1993
, pp.
109
123
.
20.
Folk
,
R. L.
, “
A Comparison Chart for Visual Percentage Estimation
,”
J. Sediment. Petrol.
, Vol.
21
(
1
),
1951
, pp.
32
33
.
21.
Travis
,
R. B.
, “
Classification of Rocks
,”
Q. Colorado School Mines
, Vol.
50
(
1
),
1955
, p. 8.
22.
Terry
,
R. D.
and
G. V.
Chilingar
, “
American Geological Institute Data Sheet 6
,”
J. Sediment. Petrol.
, Vol.
25
,
1955
, pp.
229
234
.
23.
Reid
,
J. C.
, “
Comparison Chart for Estimating Volume Percentages of Constituents in Rocks and Concentrates in the Range of 1.0 to 0.1 Volume Percent
,”
Am. Miner.
, Vol.
70
,
1985
, pp.
1318
1319
.
24.
Baccelle
,
L.
and
Bosellini
,
A.
, “
Diagrammi per la stima visiva della composizione percentuale nelle rocce sedimentary
,”
Sci. Geol. Paleontol., Ann. Univ. Ferrara, N. Ser.
, Vol.
IX:1
,
1965
, pp.
59
62
.
25.
EPA-600/M4-82-020,
Test Method: Interim Method for the Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples
, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
1982
.
26.
NIOSH 9002
, “
Asbestos (bulk) by Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) — Method 9002
,” Issue 2,
NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods
, 4th ed., National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
1994
, p. 94.
27.
Millette
,
J. R.
and
Turner
,
W. L.
, Jr.
, “
Visual Estimation in the Analysis of Surface Particulate by Microscopy
,”
Microscope
, Vol.
58
(
2
),
2010
, pp.
65
68
.
28.
Harvey
,
B.
,
Doorn
,
S. S.
,
Ennis
,
J. T.
,
Greene
,
L. C.
,
Winstead
,
W. G.
,
Gerald
,
M.
, and
Robbins
,
E.E.
, “
American Industrial Hygiene Association Bulk Asbestos Proficiency Analytical Testing Program. Final Report to Laboratories—Test round A73-407
,” Report No. RTI/04562/73L-F,
2008
.
29.
Clague
,
A. D. H.
,
Donnet
,
J. B.
,
Wang
,
T. K.
, and
Peng
,
J. C. M.
, “
A Comparison of Diesel Engine Soot with Carbon Black
,”
Carbon
, Vol.
37
,
1999
, pp.
1553
1565
. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6223(99)00035-4
30.
Goldberg
,
E. D.
,
Black Carbon in the Environment: Properties and Distribution
,
Wiley
,
New York
,
1985
, p. 187.
31.
Hess
,
W. M.
and
Herd
,
C. R.
, “
Microstructure, Morphology and General Physical Properties
,”
Carbon Black: Science and Technology
, 2nd ed.,
J.
Donnet
,
R. C.
Bansal
, and
M.
Wang
, Eds.,
Marcel Dekker
,
New York
,
1993
, pp.
89
173
.
32.
Huffman
,
G. P.
,
Huggins
,
F. N.
,
Shah
,
N.
,
Huggins
,
R.
,
Linak
,
W. P.
,
Miller
,
C.
,
Pugmire
,
R. J.
,
Meuzelaar
,
H. L. C.
,
Seehra
,
M. S.
, and
Manivannan
,
A.
, “
Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter Produced by Combustion of Residual Fuel Oil
,”
J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc.
, Vol.
50
(
7
),
2000
, pp.
1106
1114
.
33.
Kostiuk
,
L. W.
,
Johnson
,
M. R.
, and
Thomas
,
G. P.
, “
University of Alberta Flare Research Project Final Report Nov. 1996 – Sept. 2004
,” University of Alberta, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
2004
, pp.
162
180
.
34.
Medalia
,
A. I.
and
Rivin
,
D.
, “
Particulate Carbon and Other Components of Soot and Carbon Black
,”
Carbon
, Vol.
20
,
1982
, pp.
481
492
. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-6223(82)90084-7
35.
Millette
,
J. R.
and
Few
,
P.
, “
Indoor Carbon Soot Particles
,”
Microscope
, Vol.
46
(
4
),
1998
, pp.
201
206
.
36.
Stevenson
,
R.
, “
The Morphology and Crystallography of Diesel Particulate Emissions
,”
Carbon
, Vol.
20
(
5
),
1982
, pp.
359
365
. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-6223(82)90033-1
37.
Laboratory Standards and Technologies
,
2010
, www.carbonstandard.com/ (currently seven grades of carbon blacks that have been approved by ASTM Committee D24 are available) (Last accessed 1 August 2011).
38.
NIST SMR 2975, “
Diesel Particulate Matter
,” U. S. National Institute of Standards and Technology.
39.
Millette
,
J. R.
,
Brown
,
R. S.
,
Kyle
,
J. P.
,
Turner
,
W. L.
, Jr.
,
Hill
,
W. B.
, and
Boltin
,
W. R.
, “
Distinguishing Coal, Coke and Other Black Particles
,”
Microscope
, Vol.
57
(
2
),
2009
, pp.
51
57
.
40.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NEI (National Emission Inventory)
http://cfpub.epa.gov/eroe/index.cfm (Last accessed 1 August 2011).
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.