Abstract

In this work effects of tumor shape on magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (MNPH) are investigated and evaluated using four categories (spherical, oblate, prolate, and egg-shape) of tumor models having different morphologies. These tumors have equal volume; however, due to the differences in their shapes, they have different surface areas. The shape of tumors is quantified in terms of shape factor (ζ). Simulations for MNPH are done on the physical model constituting tumor tissue enclosed within the healthy tissue. Magnetic hyperthermia is applied (frequency 150 kHz, and magnetic field amplitude 20.5 kA/m) to all tumor models, for 1 hour, after injection of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) at the respective tumor centroids. The distribution of MNPs after injection is considered Gaussian. The governing model (Pennes' bioheat model) of heat transfer in biological media is solved with the finite volume-immersed boundary (FV-IB) method to simulate MNPH. Therapeutic effects are calculated using the Arrhenius tissue damage model, cumulative equivalent minutes at 43°C (CEM 43), and heterogeneity in temperature profiles of the tumors. Results show that the therapeutic effects due to MNPH depend significantly on the shape of a tumor. Tumors with higher shape factors receive less therapeutic effects in comparison to the tumors having lower shape factors. An empirical thermal damage model is also developed to assess the MNPH efficacy in real complex-shaped tumors.

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