Abstract

The thermal and fluid dynamic behavior of a confined two-dimensional steady laminar nanofluid jet impinging on a horizontal plate embedded with five discrete heating elements subjected to a constant surface heat flux has been studied for a range of Reynolds number (Re) from 100 to 400 with Prandtl number, Pr = 6.96 of the base fluid. Variation of inlet Reynolds number produce a significant change of the flow and heat transfer characteristics in the domain. Increasing nanoparticle concentration (f) from 0% to 4% exhibits discernible change in equivalent Re and Pr caused by the modification of dynamic viscosity, effective density, thermal conductivity and specific heat of the base fluid. Considerable improvement in heat transfer from the heaters is observed as the maximum temperature of the impingement wall is diminished from 0.95 to 0.55 by increasing Re from 100 to 400; however, the result of increasing φ on cooling of the heaters is less appreciable. Self similar behavior has been depicted by cross-stream variation of streamwise heat flux and temperature in the developed region along the impingement wall up to Re = 300 for φ = 0% to 4%. But spread of the respective quantities shows strong dependence on φ at Re = 300 with sudden attenuation in magnitude in the developed region of flow. Substantial influence of Re, is evident on Eckert number and pumping power. Eckert number decreases whereas pumping power increases with increase in Re, and the respective variations showed correspondence with power fit correlations.

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