Certain processes involve heat transfer across a moving surface and application of the well-known “penetration theory” to scraped-surface heat transfer, suggests that this theory might be applied to this situation. At high water flows and high surface speeds experimental results agree well with the theory, but at lower values the experimental heat-transfer rates are much higher than those predicted from the theory, and at high surface speeds and lower water velocities the experimental value of the heat transfer coefficient is lower than predicted. The differences are attributed to additional turbulence and secondary-flow (back-mixing) effects, which would be extremely difficult to allow for in the theory.

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