The “turbulence-model” approach has been applied to solve the Reynolds equations of momentum and energy for an incompressible, steady-state, one-directional, hydrodynamically fully developed, turbulent internal flow. To close the turbulence equations, a phenomenological model of turbulent motion and energy transport has been developed which includes anisotropy effects. Predictions made for the turbulent diffusivities of heat in turbulent flow in a plain tube are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data over a wide range of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. Corresponding results for infinite rod arrays with in-line flow also compare favorably with the few reliable data available.
A Phenomenological Turbulence Model and its Application to Heat Transport in Infinite Rod Arrays With Axial Turbulent Flow
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Ramm, H., and Johannsen, K. (May 1, 1975). "A Phenomenological Turbulence Model and its Application to Heat Transport in Infinite Rod Arrays With Axial Turbulent Flow." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. May 1975; 97(2): 231–237. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3450346
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