An examination of available solutions for the penetration depth for electron beam welding revealed that they have been based on mathematical models which are not truly representative of the physical phenomena. The deposition of electron beam energy has been represented by a steady line source. Experimental evidence, however, shows that due to an oscillating flow of the molten material, the electron beam energy is deposited on a surface which varies from close to horizontal to the sides of a cone-shaped cavity. To account for this a cylindrical constant temperature boundary condition was proposed. Results based on this model were found to agree within 20 percent with available depth of penetration data.

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