Jet impingement cooling is considered as one of the most effective heat transfer enhancement techniques. The primary mode of heat transfer enhancement is due to the flow stagnation. The effectiveness of jet impingement as a cooling technique is well documented; however, the application of jet impingement to different problems has been hindered by inability of manufacturing methods to incorporate impingement systems easily into cooling designs. Impingement heat transfer effectiveness can be further improved by improving the jet strength by modifying the jet holes, enhancing surface features, or adding swirl. With an increased usage of this cooling technique and additional modifications in geometry to further enhance the heat transfer capacity to suit different applications, this paper provides a much-needed review of the advancements in the effectiveness of this cooling technique. A comprehensive look at impingement cooling over a variety of modifications and applications with a focus on improved manufacturing techniques impacting novel design and implementation is provided for a variety of heat transfer enhancement applications.