A novel finite volume method about the boundary layer flow and heat transfer of fractional viscoelastic fluid over a moving plate with convective boundary condition is developed. The fractional Maxwell model and fractional Fourier's law are employed in the constitutive relations. Numerical solutions are obtained and validated by exact solutions of special case with source terms. The effects of fractional parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed. Results show that the viscoelastic fluid performs shear-thickening property with the increase of fractional parameter. Moreover, the variations of the average Nusselt number demonstrate that the viscoelastic fluid characterized by fractional Fourier's law has short memory in heat conduction process.