Convective heat transfer in a rotating two-pass square channel with 45 deg ribs is numerically investigated to simulate turbine blade cooling operation under extreme design cooling conditions (high rotation number, high density ratio, and high buoyancy number). Two channel orientations are examined β = 0 deg and β = 45 deg in order to determine the effects of passage orientation on flow and heat transfer. For a reference pressure of 10-atm and a Reynolds number of 25,000, the results show that at low buoyancy number and for both channel orientations, the combined effect of Coriolis and centrifugal buoyancy forces generates an important thermal gradient between low- and high-pressure surfaces of the first passage, while the second passage remains almost unchanged compared to the stationary cases. At high buoyancy number, and unlike low buoyancy number, the interaction of Coriolis-driven cells, rib-induced vortices, and buoyancy-driven cells are destructive, which degrade the heat transfer rate on trailing and leading surfaces in the first passage for β = 0 deg. In contrast, for β = 45 deg, this interaction is constructive, which enhances the heat transfer rate on co-trailing and co-leading surfaces. In the second passage, the interaction of rib-induced vortices and buoyancy-driven cells deteriorates significantly the heat transfer rate in case of β = 0 deg than in case of β = 45 deg compared to low buoyancy number. The computations are performed using the second-moment closure turbulence model and the numerical results are in fair agreement with available experimental data.

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