Component-scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of boiling via heat flux partitioning relies upon empirical and semimechanistic representations of the modes of heat transfer believed to be important. One such mode, “quenching,” refers to the bringing of cool water to the vicinity of the heated wall to refill the volume occupied by a departing vapor bubble. This is modeled in classical heat flux partitioning approaches using a semimechanistic treatment based on idealized transient heat conduction into liquid from a perfectly conducting substrate. In this paper, we apply a modern interface tracking CFD approach to simulate steam bubble growth and departure, in an attempt to assess mechanistically (within the limitations of the CFD model) the single-phase heat transfer associated with bubble departure. This is in the spirit of one of the main motivations for such mechanistic modeling, the development of insight, and the provision of quantification, to improve the necessarily more empirical component scale modeling. The computations indicate that the long-standing “quench” model used in essentially all heat flux partitioning treatments embodies a significant overestimate of this part of the heat transfer, by a factor of perhaps ∼30. It is of course the case that the collection of individual models in heat flux partitioning treatments has been refined and tuned in aggregate, and it is not particularly surprising that an individual submodel is not numerically correct. In practice, there is much cancelation between inaccuracies in the various submodels, which in aggregate perform surprisingly well. We suggest ways in which this more soundly based quantification of “quenching heat transfer” might be taken into account in component scale modeling.

References

References
1.
Ishii
,
M.
,
1975
,
Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Theory of Two-Phase Flow
,
Eyrolles
, Paris, France.
2.
Yadigaroglu
,
G.
,
2014
, “
CMFD and the Critical-Heat-Flux Grand Challenge in Nuclear Thermal–Hydraulics—A Letter to the Editor of This Special Issue
,”
Int. J. Multiphase Flow
,
67
(Suppl.), pp.
3
12
.
3.
Chatzikyriakou
,
D.
,
Buongiorno
,
J.
, and
Lakehal
,
D.
,
2011
, “
Benchmarks for Interface Tracking Codes in the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL)
,”
14th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics
(
NURETH
), Hilton Toronto Hotel, Toronto, ON, Canada, Sept. 25–29, Paper No. 360.
4.
Kurul
,
N.
, and
Podowski
,
M. Z.
,
1990
, “
Multidimensional Effects in Forced Convection Subcooled Boiling
,”
Ninth International Heat Transfer Conference
(
IHTC
), Jerusalem, Israel, Aug. 19–24, pp. 21–25.
5.
Jung
,
S.
, and
Kim
,
H.
,
2014
, “
An Experimental Method to Simultaneously Measure the Dynamics and Heat Transfer Associated With a Single Bubble During Nucleate Boiling on a Horizontal Surface
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
73
, pp.
365
375
.
6.
Han
,
C. Y.
, and
Griffith
,
P.
,
1965
, “
The Mechanism of Heat Transfer in Nucleate Pool Boiling—Part 2: The Heat Flux-Temperature Difference Relation
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
8
(6), pp. 905–914.
7.
Končar
,
B.
,
Kljenak
,
I.
, and
Mavko
,
B.
,
2004
, “
Modelling of Local Two-Phase Flow Parameters in Upward Subcooled Flow Boiling at Low Pressure
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
47
(6–7), pp.
1499
1513
.
8.
Thakrar
,
R.
,
Murallidharan
,
J. S.
, and
Walker
,
S. P.
,
2014
, “
An Evaluation of the RPI Model for the Prediction of the Wall Heat Flux Partitioning in Subcooled Boiling Flows
,”
22nd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering
(
ICONE
), Prague, Czech Republic, July 7–11, pp. 1–10.
9.
Carlslaw
,
H. S.
, and
Jaeger
,
J. C.
,
1959
,
Conduction of Heat in Solids
,
Oxford University Press
, Oxford, UK.
10.
Han
,
C.-Y.
, and
Griffith
,
P.
,
1965
, “
The Mechanism of Heat Transfer in Nucleate Pool Boiling—Part 1: Bubble Initiaton, Growth and Departure
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
8
(6), pp. 887–904.
11.
Mikic
,
B. B.
, and
Rohsenow
,
W. M.
,
1969
, “
A New Correlation of Pool-Boiling Data Including the Effect of Heating Surface Characteristics
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
91
(2), pp. 245–250.
12.
Gerardi
,
C.
,
Buongiorno
,
J.
,
Hu
,
L.-W.
, and
McKrell
,
T.
,
2010
, “
Study of Bubble Growth in Water Pool Boiling Through Synchronized, Infrared Thermometry and High-Speed Video
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
53
(19–20), pp.
4185
4192
.
13.
Gerardi
,
C. D.
,
2009
, “
Investigation of the Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement of Nano-Engineered Fluids by Means of High-Speed Infrared Thermography
,”
Ph.D. thesis
, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
14.
CD-Adapco
,
2016
, “
Star-CCM+ User Manual
,” accessed Dec. 1, 2016, http://mdx.plm.automation.siemens.com
15.
Sato
,
Y.
, and
Ničeno
,
B.
,
2012
, “
A Conservative Local Interface Sharpening Scheme for the Constrained Interpolation Profile Method
,”
Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids
,
70
(
4
), pp.
441
467
.
16.
Sato
,
Y.
, and
Ničeno
,
B.
,
2012
, “
A New Contact Line Treatment for a Conservative Level Set Method
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
231
(
10
), pp.
3887
3895
.
17.
Sato
,
Y.
, and
Ničeno
,
B.
,
2013
, “
A Sharp-Interface Phase Change Model for a Mass-Conservative Interface Tracking Method
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
249
, pp.
127
161
.
18.
Sato
,
Y.
, and
Ničeno
,
B.
,
2015
, “
A Depletable Micro-Layer Model for Nucleate Pool Boiling
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
300
, pp.
20
52
.
19.
Brackbill
,
J. U.
,
Kothe
,
D. B.
, and
Zemach
,
C.
,
1992
, “
A Continuum Method for Modelling Surface Tension
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
100
(2), pp. 335–354.
20.
Giustini
,
G.
,
Jung
,
S.
,
Kim
,
H.
, and
Walker
,
S. P.
,
2016
, “
Evaporative Thermal Resistance and Its Influence on Microscopic Bubble Growth
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
101
, pp.
733
741
.
21.
Sato
,
Y.
, and
Niceno
,
B.
,
2017
, “
Nucleate Pool Boiling Simulations Using the Interface Tracking Method: Boiling Regime From Discrete Bubble to Vapor Mushroom Region
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
105
, pp.
505
524
.
22.
Carey
,
V. P.
,
2008
,
Liquid-Vapor Phase-Change Phenomena
,
Hemisphere
, New York.
23.
Lohse
,
D.
, and
Zhang
,
X.
,
2015
, “
Surface Nanobubbles and Nanodroplets
,”
Rev. Mod. Phys.
,
87
(
3
), pp.
981
1035
.
24.
Nam
,
Y.
, and
Ju
,
Y. S.
,
2008
, “
Bubble Nucleation on Hydrophobic Islands Provides Evidence to Anomalously High Contact Angles of Nanobubbles
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
93
(
10
), p.
103115
.
25.
Witharana
,
S.
,
Phillips
,
B.
,
Strobel
,
S.
,
Kim
,
H. D.
,
McKrell
,
T.
,
Chang
,
J.-B.
, Buongiorno, J., Berggren, K. K., Chen, L., and Ding, Y.,
2012
, “
Bubble Nucleation on Nano‐ to Micro‐Size Cavities and Posts: An Experimental Validation of Classical Theory
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
,
112
(6), pp. 112–116.
26.
Duan
,
X.
,
Phillips
,
B.
,
McKrell
,
T.
, and
Buongiorno
,
J.
,
2013
, “
Synchronized High-Speed Video, Infrared Thermometry, and Particle Image Velocimetry Data for Validation of Interface-Tracking Simulations of Nucleate Boiling Phenomena
,”
Exp. Heat Transfer
,
26
(2–3), pp.
169
197
.
27.
Nishikawa
,
K.
, and
Fujita
,
Y.
,
1977
, “
Correlation of Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer Based on Bubble Population Density
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
20
(
3
), pp.
233
245
.
28.
Tryggvason
,
G.
,
Scardovelli
,
R.
, and
Zaleski
,
S.
,
2011
,
Direct Numerical Simulations of Gas-Liquid Multiphase Flows
,
Cambridge University Press
, Cambridge, UK.
29.
Utaka
,
Y.
,
Kashiwabara
,
Y.
, and
Ozaki
,
M.
,
2013
, “
Microlayer Structure in Nucleate Boiling of Water and Ethanol at Atmospheric Pressure
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
57
(
1
), pp.
222
230
.
30.
Jeong
,
S.
,
Jung
,
S.
, and
Kim
,
H.
,
2015
, “
Experimental Study on Geometry of a Microlayer During Single-Bubble Nucleate Boiling
,”
Trans. Korean Soc. Mech. Eng. B
,
39
(
6
), pp.
519
526
.
31.
Demiray
,
F.
, and
Kim
,
J.
,
2004
, “
Microscale Heat Transfer Measurements During Pool Boiling of FC-72: Effect of Subcooling
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
47
(14–16), pp.
3257
3268
.
32.
Moghaddam
,
S.
, and
Kiger
,
K.
,
2009
, “
Physical Mechanisms of Heat Transfer During Single Bubble Nucleate Boiling of FC-72 Under Saturation Conditions—I. Experimental Investigation
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
52
(5–6), pp.
1284
1294
.
33.
Moghaddam
,
S.
, and
Kiger
,
K.
,
2009
, “
Physical Mechanisms of Heat Transfer During Single Bubble Nucleate Boiling of FC-72 Under Saturation Conditions—II: Theoretical Analysis
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
52
(5–6), pp.
1295
1303
.
You do not currently have access to this content.