The influence of airflow shear on the free surface deformation and the flow structure for large Prandtl number fluid (Pr = 111.67) has been analyzed numerically as the parallel airflow shear is induced into the surrounding of liquid bridge from the lower disk or the upper disk. Contrasted with former studies, an improved level set method is adopted to track any tiny deformation of free surface, where the area compensation is carried out to compensate the nonconservation of mass. Present results indicate that the airflow shear can excite flow cells in the isothermal liquid bridge. The airflow shear induced from the upper disk impulses the convex region of free interface as the airflow shear intensity is increased, which may exceed the breaking limit of liquid bridge. The free surface is transformed from the “S”-shape into the “M”-shape as the airflow shear is induced from the lower disk. For the nonisothermal liquid bridge, the flow cell is dominated by the thermocapillary convection at the hot corner if the airflow shear comes from the hot disk, and another reversed flow cell near the cold disk appears. While the shape of free surface depends on the competition between the thermocapillary force and the shear force when the airflow is induced from the cold disk.

References

References
1.
Machida
,
N.
,
Hoshikawa
,
K.
, and
Shimizu
,
Y.
,
2000
, “
The Effects of Argon Gas Flow Rate and Furnace Pressure on Oxygen Concentration in Czochralski Silicon Single Crystals Grown in a Transverse Magnetic Field
,”
J. Cryst. Growth
,
210
(
4
), pp.
532
540
.
2.
Liang
,
R. Q.
,
Yang
,
S.
, and
Li
,
J. Z.
,
2014
, “
Thermocapillary Convection in Floating Zone With Axial Magnetic Fields
,”
Microgravity Sci. Technol.
,
25
(
5
), pp.
285
293
.
3.
Uguz
,
A. K.
,
Alvarez
,
N. J.
, and
Narayanan
,
R.
,
2010
, “
An Experimental Study of the Stability of Liquid Bridges Subject to Shear-Induced Closed-Flow
,”
J. Colloid Interface Sci.
,
346
(
2
), pp.
464
469
.
4.
Gaponenko
,
Y.
,
Mialdun
,
A.
, and
Shevtsova
,
V.
,
2012
, “
Shear Driven Two-Phase Flows in Vertical Cylindrical Duct
,”
Int. J. Multiphase Flow
,
39
, pp.
205
215
.
5.
Lappa
,
M.
,
Savino
,
R.
, and
Monti
,
R.
,
2001
, “
Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Marangoni Instabilities in Liquid Bridges: Influence of Geometrical Aspect Ratio
,”
Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids
,
36
(
1
), pp.
53
90
.
6.
Gaponenko
,
Y.
,
Glockner
,
S.
,
Mialdun
,
A.
, and
Shevtsova
,
V.
,
2011
, “
Study of a Liquid Bridge Subjected to Interface Shear Stresses
,”
Acta Astronaut.
,
69
, pp.
119
126
.
7.
Gaponenko
,
Y.
, and
Shevtsova
,
V.
,
2012
, “
Heat Transfer Through the Interface and Flow Regimes in Liquid Bridge Subjected to Co-Axial Gas Flow
,”
Microgravity Sci. Technol.
,
24
(
4
), pp.
297
306
.
8.
Melnikov
,
D. E.
, and
Shevtsova
,
V. M.
,
2014
, “
The Effect of Ambient Temperature on the Stability of Thermocapillary Flow in Liquid Column
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
74
, pp.
185
195
.
9.
Herrada
,
M.
,
López-Herrera
,
J. M.
,
Vega
,
E. J.
, and
Montanero
,
J. M.
,
2011
, “
Numerical Simulation of a Liquid Bridge in a Coaxial Gas Flow
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
23
(
1
), p.
012101
.
10.
Kamotani
,
Y.
,
Wang
,
L.
, and
Hatta
,
S.
,
2003
, “
Free Surface Heat Loss Effect on Oscillatory Thermocapillary Flow in Liquid Bridges of High Prandtl Number Fluids
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
46
(
17
), pp.
3211
3220
.
11.
Wang
,
A.
,
Kamotani
,
Y.
, and
Yoda
,
S.
,
2007
, “
Oscillatory Thermocapillary Flow in Liquid Bridges of High Prandtl Number Fluid With Free Surface Heat Gain
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
50
(
21
), pp.
4195
4205
.
12.
Irikura
,
M.
,
Arakawa
,
Y.
, and
Ueno
,
I.
,
2005
, “
Effect of Ambient Fluid Flow Upon Onset of Oscillatory Thermocapillary Convection in Half-Zone Liquid Bridge
,”
Microgravity Sci. Technol.
,
16
(
1–4
), pp.
176
180
.
13.
Matsunaga
,
T.
,
Mialdun
,
A.
,
Nishino
,
K.
, and
Shevtsova
,
V.
,
2012
, “
Measurements of Gas/Oil Free Surface Deformation Caused by Parallel Gas Flow
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
24
(
6
), p.
062101
.
14.
Irikura
,
M.
,
Ueno
,
I.
, and
Kawamura
,
H.
,
2004
, “
Numerical Simulation of Thermocapillary Convection in a Half Zone Liquid Bridge and Ambient Air Motion
,”
JSME
,
2004
(
10
), pp.
397
398
.
15.
Osher
,
S.
, and
Sethian
,
J. A.
,
1988
, “
Front Propagating With Curvature-Dependent Speed: Algorithms Based on Hamilton-Jacobi Formulation
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
79
(
1
), pp.
12
49
.
16.
Sussman
,
M.
,
Smereka
,
P.
, and
Osher
,
S.
,
1994
, “
A Level Set Approach for Computing Solutions to Incompressible Two-Phase Flow
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
114
(
1
), pp.
146
159
.
17.
Harten
,
A.
,
Engquist
,
B.
,
Osher
,
S.
, and
Chakravarthy
,
S. R.
,
1987
, “
Uniformly High Order Accurate Essentially Non-Oscillatory Schemes, III
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
71
(
2
), pp.
231
303
.
18.
Leonard
,
B. P.
,
1979
, “
A Stable and Accurate Convective Modelling Procedure Based on Quadratic Upstream Interpolation
,”
Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng.
,
19
(
1
), pp.
59
98
.
19.
Hong
,
Y. J.
,
Xing
,
J.
, and
Wang
,
J. B.
,
1999
, “
A Second-Order Third-Moment Method for Calculating the Reliability of Fatigue
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
76
(
8
), pp.
567
570
.
20.
Germund
,
D.
,
1956
, “
Convergence and Stability in the Numerical Integration of Ordinary Differential Equations
,”
Math. Scand.
,
4
(
1
), pp.
33
53
.https://www.jstor.org/stable/24490010?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
21.
Brackbill
,
J.
,
Kothe
,
D. B.
, and
Zemach
,
C.
,
1992
, “
A Continuum Method for Modeling Surface Tension
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
100
(
2
), pp.
335
354
.
22.
Šikalo
,
Š.
,
Wilhelm
,
H. D.
,
Roisman
,
I. V.
,
Jakirli
,
S.
, and
Tropea
,
C.
,
2005
, “
Dynamic Contact Angle of Spreading Droplets: Experiments and Simulations
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
17
(
6
), p.
062103
.
23.
Shevtsova
,
V.
,
2005
, “
Thermal Convection in Liquid Bridges With Curved Free Surfaces: Benchmark of Numerical Solutions
,”
J. Cryst. Growth
,
280
, pp.
632
651
.
24.
Gaponenko
,
Y.
,
Nepomnyashchy
,
A.
, and
Shevtsova
,
V.
,
2011
, “
Thermocapillary and Shear Driven Flows in Gas/Liquid System in Annular Duct
,”
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.
,
327
, p.
012030
.
25.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Huang
,
H. L.
, and
Zhang
,
X. D.
,
2015
, “
The Effect of Aspect Ratio and Axial Magnetic Field on Thermocapillary Convection in Liquid Bridges With a Deformable Free-Surface
,”
Eng. Appl. Comput. Fluid Mech.
,
10
(
1
), pp.
16
28
.
26.
Zhou
,
X. M.
, and
Huai
,
X. L.
,
2015
, “
Free Surface Deformation of Thermo-Solutocapillary Convection in Axisymmetric Liquid Bridge
,”
Microgravity Sci. Technol.
,
27
(
1
), pp.
39
47
.
27.
Kamotani
,
Y.
,
Ostrach
,
S.
, and
Masud
,
J.
,
1999
, “
Oscillatory Thermocapillary Flows in Open Cylindrical Containers Induced by CO2 Laser Heating
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
42
(
3
), pp.
555
564
.
You do not currently have access to this content.