A numerical investigation of mixed convection due to a copper–water nanofluid in an enclosure is presented. The mixed convection is governed by moving the upper lid of the enclosure and imposing a vertical temperature gradient. The transport equations for fluid and heat are modeled by using the Boussinesq approximation. A modified form of the control volume based SIMPLET algorithm is used for the solution of the transport equations. The fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied for a wide range of Reynolds number and Grashof number so as to have the Richardson number greater or less than 1. The nanoparticle volume fraction is considered up to 20%. Heat flow patterns are analyzed through the energy flux vector. The rate of enhancement in heat transfer due to the addition of nanoparticles is analyzed. The entropy generation and Bejan number are evaluated to demonstrate the thermodynamic optimization of the mixed convection. We have obtained the enhancement rate in heat transfer and entropy generation in nanofluid for a wide range of parameter values.

Article navigation

Research-Article

# Numerical Study on Mixed Convection and Entropy Generation of a Nanofluid in a Lid-Driven Square Enclosure

R. K. Nayak

,
R. K. Nayak

Search for other works by this author on:

S. Bhattacharyya

,
S. Bhattacharyya

Department of Mathematics,

IIT Kharagpur,

Kharagpur 721302, India

e-mail: somnath@maths.iitkgp.ernet.in

IIT Kharagpur,

Kharagpur 721302, India

e-mail: somnath@maths.iitkgp.ernet.in

Search for other works by this author on:

I. Pop

I. Pop

Department of Mathematics,

Babes-Bolyai University,

Cluj-Napoca 400084, Romania

e-mail: popm.ioan@yahoo.co.uk

Babes-Bolyai University,

Cluj-Napoca 400084, Romania

e-mail: popm.ioan@yahoo.co.uk

Search for other works by this author on:

R. K. Nayak

S. Bhattacharyya

IIT Kharagpur,

Kharagpur 721302, India

e-mail: somnath@maths.iitkgp.ernet.in

I. Pop

Babes-Bolyai University,

Cluj-Napoca 400084, Romania

e-mail: popm.ioan@yahoo.co.uk

1

Corresponding author.
Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received December 19, 2014; final manuscript received July 6, 2015; published online August 25, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Andrey Kuznetsov.

*J. Heat Transfer*. Jan 2016, 138(1): 012503 (11 pages)

**Published Online:**August 25, 2015

Article history

Received:

December 19, 2014

Revised:

July 6, 2015

Citation

Nayak, R. K., Bhattacharyya, S., and Pop, I. (August 25, 2015). "Numerical Study on Mixed Convection and Entropy Generation of a Nanofluid in a Lid-Driven Square Enclosure." ASME. *J. Heat Transfer*. January 2016; 138(1): 012503. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4031178

Download citation file:

- Ris (Zotero)
- Reference Manager
- EasyBib
- Bookends
- Mendeley
- Papers
- EndNote
- RefWorks
- BibTex
- ProCite
- Medlars

Close

#### Sign In

### Get Email Alerts

### Cited By

Effect of Operational Parameters on the Thermal Performance of Flat Plate Oscillating Heat Pipe

J. Heat Transfer (December 2019)

Heat Transfer and Flow Structurein a Latticework Duct WithDifferent Sidewalls

J. Heat Transfer (December 2019)

Thermoelastic Interactions in a Slim Strip Due to a Moving Heat Source Under Dual-Phase-Lag Heat Transfer

J. Heat Transfer (December 2019)

### Related Articles

Laminar Mixed Convective Heat Transfer in a Shallow Inclined Lid-Driven Cavity Filled With Nanofluid

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl (December, 2015)

Magnetic Field Effect on Mixed Convection in Lid-Driven Trapezoidal Cavities Filled With a Cu–Water Nanofluid With an Aiding or Opposing Side Wall

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl (September, 2016)

Laminar Mixed Convection of Non-Newtonian Nanofluids Flowing Vertically Upward Across a Confined Circular Cylinder

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl (August, 2018)

Numerical Analysis of Unsteady Conjugate Natural Convection of Hybrid Water-Based Nanofluid in a Semicircular Cavity

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl (December, 2017)

### Related Proceedings Papers

### Related Chapters

Finite Element Solution of Natural Convection Flow of a Nanofluid along a Vertical Flat Plate with Streamwise Sinusoidal Surface Temperature

International Conference on Computer and Electrical Engineering 4th (ICCEE 2011)

Heat Transfer Characteristics of CNT-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid Flow Inside Helically Coiled Tubes under Uniform Wall Tempoerature Condition

International Conference on Computer and Electrical Engineering 4th (ICCEE 2011)

Mixed-Up Convection

Hot Air Rises and Heat Sinks: Everything You Know about Cooling Electronics Is Wrong