Critical heat flux (CHF) characteristics in submerged jet impingement boiling of water on a heated copper surface are investigated at subatmospheric conditions. Data are reported at a fixed surface-to-nozzle diameter ratio of 23.8 and a fixed surface-to-nozzle height of 6 nozzle diameters. Three subatmospheric pressures of 0.176 bars, 0.276 bars, and 0.477 bars are considered, corresponding to fluid saturation temperatures of 57.3 °C, 67.2 °C, and 80.2 °C and liquid-to-vapor density ratios of 8502, 5544, and 3295, respectively. At each pressure, CHF for varying jet Reynolds numbers (Re) in the range 0–14,000 are compared for two different surface finishes of roughness average values of 123 nm and 33 nm. The CHF enhancement observed with increasing Re is depicted in a nondimensional CHF map. Existing correlations available in the literature, which are out of range of the current experimental conditions, are found to poorly predict the obtained CHF data. A CHF correlation that captures the entire experimental data set within an average error of ±3% and a maximum error of ±13% is developed. The effect of fluid subcooling on submerged jet CHF is studied at the lowest pressure of 0.176 bars. Subcooled jet CHF is found to be well predicted from saturated jet CHF by using a typical subcooled pool boiling CHF correction factor.

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