In this combined experimental and simulation investigation, a stream of HFE-7100 droplets striking a prewetted surface under constant heat flux was studied. An implicit free surface capturing technique based on the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) approach was employed to simulate this process numerically. Experimentally, an infrared thermography technique was used to measure the temperature distribution of the surface consisting of a 100 nm ITO layer on a ZnSe substrate. The heat flux was varied to investigate the heat transfer behavior of periodic droplet impingement at the solid–liquid interface. In both experiments and simulations, the morphology of the impact zone was characterized by a quasi-stationary liquid impact crater. Comparison of the radial temperature profiles on the impinging surface between the experiments and numerical simulations yielded reasonable agreement. Due to the strong radial flow emanating from successive droplet impacts, the temperature distribution inside the crater region was found to be significantly reduced from its saturated value. In effect, the heat transfer mode in this region was governed by single phase convective and conductive heat transfer, and was mostly affected by the HFE-7100 mass flow rates or the number of droplets. At higher heat fluxes, the minimum temperature, and its gradient with respect to the radial coordinate, increased considerably. Numerical comparison between average and instantaneous temperature profiles within the droplet impact region showed the effect of thermal mixing produced by the liquid crowns formed during successive droplet impact events.
Numerical Simulations and Experimental Characterization of Heat Transfer From a Periodic Impingement of Droplets
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Trujillo, M. F., Alvarado, J., Gehring, E., and Soriano, G. S. (October 5, 2011). "Numerical Simulations and Experimental Characterization of Heat Transfer From a Periodic Impingement of Droplets." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. December 2011; 133(12): 122201. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4004348
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