In recent years, high-heat-flux cooling techniques have received great attention from researchers around the world due to its importance in thermal management of both commercial and defense high-power electronic devices. Although impressive progress has been made during the last few decades, high-heat-flux removal still largely remains as a challenging subject that needs further exploration and study. In this paper, we have reviewed recent developments in several high-heat-flux heat removal techniques, including microchannels, jet impingements, sprays, wettability effects, and piezoelectrically driven droplets. High-heat-flux removal can be achieved effectively by either single-phase flow or two-phase flow boiling heat transfer. Better understandings of the underlying heat transfer mechanisms for performance improvement are discussed.

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