An interfacial tracking method was developed to model rapid melting and resolidification of a freestanding metal film subject to an ultrashort laser pulse. The laser energy was deposited to the electrons near thin film surface, and subsequently diffused into a deeper part of the electron gas and transferred to the lattice. The energy equations for the electron and lattice were coupled through an electron-lattice coupling factor. Melting and resolidification were modeled by considering the interfacial energy balance and nucleation dynamics. An iterative solution procedure was employed to determine the elevated melting temperature and depressed solidification temperature in the ultrafast phase-change processes. The predicted surface lattice temperature, interfacial location, interfacial temperature, and interfacial velocity were compared with those obtained by an explicit enthalpy model. The effects of the electron thermal conductivity models, ballistic range, and laser fluence on the melting and resolidification were also investigated.

1.
Wang
,
G. X.
, and
Prasad
,
V.
, 2000, “
Microscale Heat and Mass Transfer and Non-Equilibrium Phase Change in Rapid Solidification
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng., A
0921-5093,
292
, pp.
142
148
.
2.
Griffith
,
M. L.
,
Ensz
,
M. T.
, and
Reckaway
,
D. E.
, 2003, “
Femtosecond Laser Machining of Steel
,”
Proc. SPIE
0277-786X,
4977
, pp.
118
122
.
3.
Klein-Wiele
,
J.
,
Bekesi
,
J.
,
Ihlemann
,
J.
, and
Simon
,
P.
, 2003, “
Nanofabrication of Solid Materials With Ultraviolet Femtosecond Pulses
,”
Proc. SPIE
0277-786X,
5399
, pp.
139
146
.
4.
Hirayama
,
Y.
, and
Obara
,
M.
, 2003, “
Heat Affected Zone of Metals Ablated With Femtosecond Laser Pulses
,”
Proc. SPIE
0277-786X,
4977
, pp.
417
425
.
5.
Hohlfeld
,
J.
,
Wellershoff
,
S. S.
,
Gudde
,
J.
,
Conrad
,
U.
,
Jahnke
,
V.
, and
Matthias
,
E.
, 2000, “
Electron and Lattice Dynamics Following Optical Excitation of Metals
,”
Chem. Phys.
0301-0104,
251
, pp.
237
258
.
6.
Eesley
,
G. L.
, 1986, “
Generation of Non-Equilibrium Electron and Lattice Temperatures in Copper by Picosecond Laser Pulses
,”
Phys. Rev. B
0163-1829,
33
, pp.
2144
2155
.
7.
Elsayed-Ali
,
H. E.
,
Norris
,
T. B.
,
Pessot
,
M. A.
, and
Mourou
,
G. A.
, 1987, “
Time-Resolved Observation of Electron-Phonon Relaxation in Copper
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
0031-9007,
58
, pp.
1212
1215
.
8.
Anisimov
,
S. I.
,
Kapeliovich
,
B. L.
, and
Perel’man
,
T. L.
, 1974, “
Electron Emission From Metal Surface Exposed to Ultrashort Laser Pulses
,”
Sov. Phys. JETP
0038-5646,
39
, pp.
375
377
.
9.
Qiu
,
T. Q.
, and
Tien
,
C. L.
, 1993, “
Heat Transfer Mechanisms During Short-Pulse Laser Heating of Metals
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
0022-1481,
115
, pp.
835
837
.
10.
Tzou
,
D. Y.
, 1997,
Macro- to Microscale Heat Transfer
,
Taylor & Francis
,
Washington, DC
.
11.
Tzou
,
D. Y.
, 2006, “
Computational Techniques for Microscale Heat Transfer
,”
Handbook of Numerical Heat Transfer
,
2nd ed.
,
W. J.
Minkowycz
,
E. M.
Sparrow
, and
J. Y.
Murthy
, eds.,
Wiley
,
Hoboken, NJ
.
12.
Jiang
,
L.
, and
Tsai
,
H. L.
, 2005, “
Improved Two-Temperature Model and Its Application in Ultrashort Laser Heating of Metal Films
,”
J. Heat Transfer
0022-1481,
127
, pp.
1167
1173
.
13.
Chen
,
J. K.
,
Beraun
,
J. E.
, and
Tzou
,
D. Y.
, 2006, “
A Semiclassical Two-Temperature Model for Ultrasfast Laser Heating
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
0017-9310,
49
, pp.
307
316
.
14.
Kuo
,
L. S.
, and
Qiu
,
T.
, 1996, “
Microscale Energy Transfer During Picosecond Laser Melting of Metal Films
,” ASME National Heat Transfer Conference, Vol.
1
, pp.
149
157
.
15.
Von Der Linde
,
D.
,
Fabricius
,
N.
,
Danielzik
,
B.
, and
Bonkhofer
,
T.
, 1987, “
Solid Phase Superheating During Picoseond Laser Melting
,”
Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.
0272-9172,
74
, pp.
103
108
.
16.
Shi
,
Y.
,
Zhang
,
Y.
, and
Konrad
,
C.
, 2007, “
Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Vapor Phase Change Induced by a Nanosecond Laser in Selective Laser Sintering
,”
Nanoscale Microscale Thermophys. Eng.
1556-7265,
11
, pp.
301
318
.
17.
Chowdhury
,
I. H.
, and
Xu
,
X.
, 2003, “
Heat Transfer in Femtosecond Laser Processing of Metal
,”
Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A
1040-7782,
44
, pp.
219
232
.
18.
Voller
,
V. R.
, 1997, “
An Overview of Numerical Methods for Solving Phase Change Problems
,”
Advances in Numerical Heat Transfer
, Vol.
1
,
W. J.
Minkowycz
and
E. M.
Sparrow
, eds.,
Taylor & Francis
,
Basingstoke
.
19.
Sasaguchi
,
K.
,
Ishihara
,
A.
, and
Zhang
,
H.
, 1996, “
Numerical Study on Utilization of Melting of Phase Change Material for Cooling of a Heated Surface at a Constant Rate
,”
Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A
1040-7782,
29
, pp.
19
31
.
20.
Binet
,
B.
, and
Lacroix
,
M.
, 2000, “
Melting From Heat Sources Flush Mounted on a Conducting Vertical Wall
,”
Int. J. Numer. Methods Heat Fluid Flow
0961-5539,
10
, pp.
286
306
.
21.
Morgan
,
K.
, 1981, “
A Numerical Analysis of Freezing and Melting With Convection
,”
Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng.
0045-7825,
28
, pp.
275
284
.
22.
Hsiao
,
J. S.
, 1984, “
An Efficient Algorithm for Finite Difference Analysis of Heat Transfer With Melting and Solidification
,” ASME Paper No. 84-WA/HT-42.
23.
Cao
,
Y.
, and
Faghri
,
A.
, 1990, “
A Numerical Analysis of Phase Change Problem Including Natural Convection
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
0022-1481,
112
,
812
815
.
24.
Swaminathan
,
C. R.
, and
Voller
,
V. R.
, 1993, “
On the Enthalpy Method
,”
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
0142-727X,
3
, pp.
233
234
.
25.
Klemens
,
P. G.
, and
Williams
,
R. K.
, 1986, “
Thermal Conductivity of Metals and Alloys
,”
Int. Met. Rev.
0308-4590,
31
, pp.
197
215
.
26.
Anisimov
,
S. I.
, and
Rethfeld
,
B.
, 1997, “
On the Theory of Ultrashort Laser Pulse Interaction With a Metal
,”
Proc. SPIE
0277-786X,
3093
, pp.
192
202
.
27.
Wellershoff
,
S.
,
Hohlfeld
,
J.
,
Güdde
,
J.
, and
Matthias
,
E.
, 1999, “
The Role of Electron-Phonon Coupling in Femtosecond Laser Damage of Metals
,”
Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.
0947-8396,
69
, pp.
99
107
.
28.
Chen
,
J. K.
, and
Beraun
,
J. E.
, 2001, “
Numerical Study of Ultrashort Laser Pulse Interactions With Metal Films
,”
Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A
1040-7782,
40
, pp.
1
20
.
29.
Faghri
,
A.
, and
Zhang
,
Y.
, 2006,
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems
,
Elsevier
,
Burlington, MA
.
30.
Patankar
,
S. V.
, 1980,
Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
31.
Wang
,
G. X.
, and
Matthys
,
E. F.
, 1992, “
Numerical Modeling of Phase Change and Heat Transfer During Rapid Solidification Processes: Use of Control Volume Integral With Element Subdivision
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
0017-9310,
35
, pp.
141
153
.
32.
Olsson
,
E. D.
, and
Bergman
,
T. L.
, 1990, “
Reduction of Numerical Fluctuations in Fixed Grid Solidification Simulations
,”
HTD (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.)
0272-5673,
130
, pp.
130
140
.
You do not currently have access to this content.