Nanofluids are being studied for their potential to enhance heat transfer, which could have a significant impact on energy generation and storage systems. However, only limited experimental data on metal and metal-oxide based nanofluids, showing enhancement of the thermal conductivity, are currently available. Moreover, the majority of the data currently available have been obtained using transient methods. Some controversy exists as to the validity of the measured enhancement and the possibility that this enhancement may be an artifact of the experimental methodology. In the current investigation, ∕water nanofluids with normal diameters of at different volume fractions (0.5%, 2%, 4%, and 6%) have been investigated, using two different methodologies: a transient hot-wire method and a steady-state cut-bar method. The comparison of the measured data obtained using these two different experimental systems at room temperature was conducted and the experimental data at higher temperatures were obtained with steady-state cut-bar method and compared with previously reported data obtained using a transient hot-wire method. The arguments that the methodology is the cause of the observed enhancement of nanofluids effective thermal conductivity are evaluated and resolved. It is clear from the results that at room temperature, both the steady-state cut-bar and transient hot-wire methods result in nearly identical values for the effective thermal conductivity of the nanofluids tested, while at higher temperatures, the onset of natural convection results in larger measured effective thermal conductivities for the hot-wire method than those obtained using the steady-state cut-bar method. The experimental data at room temperature were also compared with previously reported data at room temperature and current available theoretical models, and the deviations of experimental data from the predicted values are presented and discussed.
Transient and Steady-State Experimental Comparison Study of Effective Thermal Conductivity of ∕Water Nanofluids
Li, C. H., Williams, W., Buongiorno, J., Hu, L., and Peterson, G. P. (March 18, 2008). "Transient and Steady-State Experimental Comparison Study of Effective Thermal Conductivity of ∕Water Nanofluids." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. April 2008; 130(4): 042407. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2789719
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