This article analyzes the transient complex heat transfer and fluid flow in molten metal and arc plasma during the gas metal arc welding process. The model predicts the formation, growth, detachment, and transfer of droplets from the tip of a continuously fed electrode under the influences of several competing forces including gravity, electromagnetic force, arc pressure, plasma shear stress, and surface tension. Simulations were conducted for five different current levels to study the effects of current on the distributions of temperature, velocity, pressure, and current density in the droplet and/or the arc plasma. Agreement between the simulated results and published experimental data was obtained.

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