Fully-transient, two-dimensional, heat transfer analysis for the simultaneous tape winding and in-situ curing of composite cylinders is presented. During processing, the orthotropic composites are continuously wound onto an isotropic mandrel and cured simultaneously by infrared (IR) heating. To most efficiently and effectively consider the continual accretion of composite, the model is formulated within a Lagrangian reference frame in which the heating source rotates while the coordinate system and composite are stationary. This enables prediction of composite temperature and degree-of-cure history from the first to last layer. Separate heat conduction equations are formulated for both the mandrel and composite cylinder. The composite cylinder’s outer surface is modeled as a moving boundary due to the accumulated layers. Exothermic heat generation due to the epoxy resin’s chemical reaction is included as a function of temperature and degree of cure. Numerical simulations using a control-volume-based finite difference method are run for a common graphite/epoxy (AS4/3501-6) composite. The Lagrangian approach was found to more accurately predict the in-situ curing temperature and degree-of-cure histories than the previously used, quasi-steady-state Eulerian approaches, which underpredict thermal losses. The model and its computational implementation were verified using analytical solutions and actual experiments. During winding, the top layer’s maximum temperature increases with total number of layers wound, demonstrating that a given incoming prepreg tape’s temperature history evolves with time. Moreover, with appropriate mandrel preheating, the inner layers can reach a very high degree of cure by the end of the winding process, revealing that the mandrel’s initial temperature has a significant effect on the composite’s temperature and degree-of-cure history. Substantial increases in the winding speed have little or no effect on the composite’s temperature history, but can significantly reduce the corresponding degree-of-cure. The development of structurally debilitating residual stresses are an important concern in selecting process parameters, such as winding speed and heating power. Taking advantage of the strong correlation between winding speed and IR heat flux, process windows can be used to guide the selection of manufacturing process parameters. These definitively show that there are thermodynamically imposed limits on how fast the cylinders may be wound and radiatively cured.
Transient Thermal Modeling of In-Situ Curing During Tape Winding of Composite Cylinders
Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received by the Heat Transfer Division August 24, 2001; revision received September 6, 2002. Associate Editor: S. S. Sadhal.
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Kim , J., Moon , T. J., and Howell, J. R. (January 29, 2003). "Transient Thermal Modeling of In-Situ Curing During Tape Winding of Composite Cylinders ." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. February 2003; 125(1): 137–146. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1527912
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