This paper describes the main features and results of a numerical investigation of molten microdroplet impact and solidification on a colder flat substrate of the same material that melts due to the energy input from the impacting molten material. The numerical model is based on the axisymmetric Lagrangian Finite-Element formulation of the Navier–Stokes, energy and material transport equations. The model accounts for a host of complex thermofluidic phenomena, exemplified by surface tension effects and heat transfer with solidification in a severely deforming domain. The dependence of the molten volume on time is determined and discussed. The influence of the thermal and hydrodynamic initial conditions on the amount of substrate melting is discussed for a range of superheat, Biot number, and impact velocity. Multidimensional and convective heat transfer effects, as well as material mixing between the droplet and the substrate are found and quantified and the underlying physics is discussed. Good agreement in the main features of the maximum melting depth boundary between the present numerical results and published experiments of other investigators for larger (mm-size) droplets was obtained, and a complex mechanism was identified, showing the influence of the droplet fluid dynamics on the substrate melting and re-solidification.
Melting and Resolidification of a Substrate Caused by Molten Microdroplet Impact
Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received by the Heat Transfer Division November 9, 2000; revision received March 20, 2001. Associate Editor: D. Zumbrunnen.
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Attinger, D., and Poulikakos, D. (March 20, 2001). "Melting and Resolidification of a Substrate Caused by Molten Microdroplet Impact ." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. December 2001; 123(6): 1110–1122. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1391274
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