We conducted experiments on the effect of dissolving either a gas (carbon dioxide) or a solid salt (sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate) in water droplets boiling on a hot stainless steel surface. Substrate temperatures were varied from 100°C to 300°C. We recorded the boiling of droplets with a video system, and photographed droplet impact using short-duration flash photography. At surface temperatures that were too low to initiate nucleate boiling, dissolved salts were found to reduce the evaporation rate since they lower the vapor pressure of water. Dissolved gas had the opposite effect: it came out of solution and formed bubbles in the liquid, enhancing evaporation. In the nucleate boiling regime dissolved carbon dioxide enhanced heat transfer by a small amount. However, sodium carbonate prevented coalescence of vapor bubbles and produced foaming in the droplet, greatly enhancing heat transfer and reducing the droplet lifetime to approximately half that of a pure water drop. Sodium bicarbonate, which decomposes to give carbon dioxide and sodium carbonate when heated, produced an even larger enhancement of heat transfer. When the surface temperature was raised above the Leidenfrost temperature of water, droplets went into film boiling and bounced off the surface following impact. Dissolved carbon dioxide was found to suppress heterogeneous bubble formation in the droplet during impact. However, dissolved salts promoted bubble formation and led to droplet break-up during impact.
The Effect of Dissolving Gases or Solids in Water Droplets Boiling on a Hot Surface
Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received by the Heat Transfer Division July 31, 2000; revision received January 11, 2001. Associate Editor: F. B. Cheung.
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Cui , Q., Chandra, S., and McCahan, S. (January 11, 2001). "The Effect of Dissolving Gases or Solids in Water Droplets Boiling on a Hot Surface ." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. August 2001; 123(4): 719–728. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1376394
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