Using a two-dimensional discrete element computer simulation of a bounded, gravity-free Couette flow of particles, the heat dissipation rate per unit area is calculated as a function of position in the flow as well as overall solid fraction. The computation results compare favorably with the kinetic theory analysis for rough disks. The heat dissipation rate is also measured for binary mixtures of particles for different small to large solid fraction ratios, and for diameter ratios of ten, five, and two. The dissipation rates increase significantly with overall solid fraction as well as local strain rates and granular temperatures. The thermal energy equation is solved for a Couette flow with one adiabatic wall and one at constant temperature. Solutions use the simulation measurements of the heat dissipation rate, solid fraction, and granular temperature to show that the thermodynamic temperature increases with solid fraction and decreases with particle conductivity. In mixtures, both the dissipation rate and the thermodynamic temperature increase with size ratio and with decreasing ratio of small to large particles.
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Energy Dissipation in Sheared Granular Flows
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Karion, A., and Hunt, M. L. (November 1, 1999). "Energy Dissipation in Sheared Granular Flows." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. November 1999; 121(4): 984–991. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2826090
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