In order to treat strongly heated, forced gas flows at low Reynolds numbers in vertical circular tubes, the k-ε turbulence model of Abe, Kondoh, and Nagano (1994), developed for forced turbulent flow between parallel plates with the constant property idealization, has been successfully applied. For thermal energy transport, the turbulent Prandtl number model of Kays and Crawford (1993) was adopted. The capability to handle these flows was assessed via calculations at the conditions of experiments by Shehata (1984), ranging from essentially turbulent to laminarizing due to the heating. Predictions forecast the development of turbulent transport quantities, Reynolds stress, and turbulent heat flux, as well as turbulent viscosity and turbulent kinetic energy. Overall agreement between the calculations and the measured velocity and temperature distributions is good, establishing confidence in the values of the forecast turbulence quantities—and the model which produced them. Most importantly, the model yields predictions which compare well with the measured wall heat transfer parameters and the pressure drop.
Numerical Prediction of Transitional Features of Turbulent Forced Gas Flows in Circular Tubes With Strong Heating
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Ezato, K., Shehata, A. M., Kunugi, T., and McEligot, D. M. (August 1, 1999). "Numerical Prediction of Transitional Features of Turbulent Forced Gas Flows in Circular Tubes With Strong Heating." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. August 1999; 121(3): 546–555. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2826015
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