This paper describes a velocity and length scale approach to low-Reynolds-number k–ε modeling, which formulates the eddy viscosity on the normal component of turbulence and a length scale. The normal component of turbulence is modeled based on the dissipation and distance from the wall and is bounded by the isotropic condition. The model accounts for the anisotropy of the dissipation and the reduced length of mixing in the near wall region. The kinetic energy and dissipation rate were computed from the k and ε transport equations of Durbin (1993). The model was tested for a wide range of turbulent flows and proved to be superior to other k–ε based models.

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