Computer models and experimental data are summarized to characterize the condensation of low-density steam in direct contact with a process fluid that is distributed over structured packings of various geometries. The one-dimensional models integrate the heat, mass, and momentum processes in the two streams, over the height of the contactor. Both cocurrent and countercurrent flows of the two streams were analyzed. The models were validated extensively with experimental data obtained with fresh water and with seawater, at high inlet noncondensable concentrations. The data obtained in these experiments provide a broad engineering data base to design and evaluate the performance of advanced heat exchangers for a number of applications, such as production of electrical power and/or potable water using low-density steam, as could be used in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion systems and in the low-pressure stages of conventional power cycles.

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