An unsteady, axisymmetric model is first proposed to investigate extensively effects of the physical, thermal, and metallurgical properties and welding conditions on nugget growths with mushy-zone phase change during resistance spot welding. The electromagnetic force, joule heat and interfacial heat generation, and cooling effects of electrodes are taken into account. Fluid patterns, temperature fields, and solute distributions in the liquid, solid, and mushy zones are determined. Results show that the computed nugget growths and temperature fields are consistent with experimental data. Variations of properties strongly affect the nugget growth. The maximum velocity in the weld nugget is found to be small and around 5 mm/s.

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