The effects of maximum density near 4°C on steady-state, two-dimensional ice formation around an isothermally cooled horizontal cylinder in a quiescent water bath are studied experimentally for ambient water temperature T = 1.9 to 18.0°C and cylinder surface temperature Tw = −20.0 to −16.2°C. The stagnation point Nusselt number, local heat transfer coefficient, and average Nusselt number behavior at the ice-water interface are studied using such parameters as ambient temperature, Rayleigh number, and a modified Grashof number Grd*. The temperature field in the ice layer is determined from the measured ice profiles by a point-matching method using a series solution of the Laplace equation in the ice. The average ice layer thickness and total low-temperature heat stored in the ice layer can be correlated using the parameter Gr*d0.5c2. A flow direction inversion region exists in the range T = 5.2 to 8.1°C, Grd* = 3.8×104 to 1.3×105, and a minimum Nusselt number behavior occurs at T = 5.2°C. Flow visualization photographs of the flow patterns near the ice surface are presented for T = 3.8, 5.2, 8.1, and 12.1°C.

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