A numerical study of steady, buoyant, incompressible water flow and heat transfer through a spherical annulus has been made. A two-dimensional computer code based on the TEACH code was rewritten in spherical coordinates to model the Navier–Stokes equation and to model fluid turbulence with a k–ε turbulence model. Results are given for the total system Nusselt number, local heat transfer rate, and fluid flow characteristics for both buoyant and nonbuoyant laminar and turbulence modeled flow. Incorporating both the turbulence model and buoyancy into the calculations improves the results.

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