Ice-formation phenomena in a water pipe whose wall is kept at a uniform temperature lower than the freezing temperature of water are examined under the conditions of an unstable ice-water interface. The onset conditions for a step or smooth change in ice thickness occurring with flow transition from laminar to turbulent are found to be correlated with ice thickness at the contraction region of the ice band and are expressed as a function of a pipe Reynolds number ReD, and a cooling temperature ratio θ. It is shown that the transient freezing process depends strongly on flow as well as temperature conditions and that the typical ice shapes at steady-state conditions can be classified on a θ-ReD coordinate system.

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